Lula Carson Smith (Carson McCullers) (1917-1967)
American author whose psychological novels and stories examined
the secrets of lonely, isolated people. Many of her works are set in the South. McCuller's best known novels are THE HEART
IS A LONELY HUNTER 1940), written at the age of twenty-two, and REFLECTIONS IN A GOLDEN EYE (1942), a psychological horror
story set in a military base. Both of the books have been filmed. Although McCullers depicted homosexual characters and she
has female lover, the theme of homosexuality was set into a broader context of alienation and dislocation in modern culture.
"I first met Carson McCullers during the war when
I was visiting Paulette Goddard and Burgess Meredith in upstate New York. Carson lived nearby, and one day when Buzz and I
were out for a walk she hailed us from her doorway. She was then in her early twenties, and had already suffered the first
of series of strokes that made her an invalid before she was thirty. I remember her as a fragile thing with great shining
eyes, and a tremor in her hand as she placed it in mine. It wasn't palsy, rather a quiver of animal timidity. But there was
nothing timid or frail about the manner in which Carson McCullers faced life. And as her affections multiplied, she only grew
stronger." (John Huston in An Open Book, 1980)
Lula Carson Smith (Carson McCullers) was born in Columbus, Georgia,
as the daughter of a well-to-do watchmaker and jeweller of French Hugenot extraction. From the age of five she took piano
lessons, and at the age of 15 she received a typewriter from her father. Two years later she moved to New York to study piano
at Juilliard School of Music, but never attended the school - she managed to lose the money set aside for her tuition. McCullers
worked in menial jobs and devoted herself to writing. She studied creative writing at Columbia and New York universities and
published in 1936 an autobiographical piece, 'Wunderkind' in Story magazine. It depicted a musical prodigy's failure
and adolescent insecurity.
In 1937 she married Reeves McCullers, a failed author. They moved
to North Caroline, living there for two years. During this time she wrote The Heart is a Lonely Hunter, a novel in
the Southern Gothic tradition. It was set in the 1930s in a small Georgian mill town. The central characters are an adolescent
girl with a passion to study music, an unsuccessful socialist agitator, a black physician struggling to maintain his personal
dignity, a widower who owns a café, and John Singer, the deaf-mute protagonist. He is confidante of people who talk to him
about loneliness and misery. When Singer's Greek mute friend goes insane, Singer is left alone. He takes a room with the Kelly
family, where he is visited by the town's misfits. After discovering that his mute friend has died, Singer shoots himself
- there is no one left to communicate with him.
The Heart is a Lonely Hunter was well-received when it
came out, and it was interpreted as an anti-fascist book. In 1968 it was filmed with Alan Arkin in the lead role. Reflections
in a Golden Eye was directed by John Huston (1967), starring Marlon Brando and Elizabeth Taylor. Some of the film was
shot in Nwe York City and on Long Island, where Huston was permitted to use an abandoned Army installation. Many of the interiors
and some of the exteriors were done in Italy.
McCullers's marriange turned out to be unlucky. They both had homosexual
relationships and separated in 1940. She moved to New York to live with George Davis, the editor of Harper's Bazaar.
McCullers became a member of the art commune February House in Brooklyn. Among their friends were W.H. Auden, Paul and Jane
Bowles, and the striptease artiste Gipsy Rose Lee. After World War II McCullers lived mostly in Paris. Her close friends during
these years included Truman Capote and Tennessee Williams.
In 1945 McCullers remarried with Reeves, and in 1948 under depression
she attempted suicide. Reeves killed himself in a Paris hotel in 1953 with an overdose of sleeping pills. McCullers's bitter-sweet
play THE SQUARE ROOT OF WONDERFUL (1958) was an attempt to examine these traumatic experinces. THE MEMBER OF THE WEDDING (1946)
described the feelings of a young girl at her brother's wedding. The Broadway production of the novel had a succesful run
Carson McCullers suffered throughout her life from several illnesses
- she had contracted rheumatic fever at the age of fifteen and a series of strokes left her a virtual invalid in her early
30's. She died in New York on September 29, 1967, after a stroke and a resultant brain haemorrhage. Her last book, ILLUMINATION
AND NIGHT GLARE (1999), McCullers dictated during her final months. Although her oeuvre is often described as "Southern
Gothic," McCullers produced her novels after leaving the South. All her novels were written with elegant, plain style. In
the grotesque world of McCullers's fiction her eccentric characters suffer from loneliness that she interpreted with deep
empathy. In a discussion with the Irish critic and writer Terence De Vere White she confessed: "Writing, for me, is a search
for God." This search was not acknowledged by all of her colleagues - Arthur Miller dismissed her a "minor author", but
Gore Vidal praised her work as ''one of the few satisfying achievements of our second-rate culture."
Eudora Welty (1909-2001)
Born in Jackson, Mississippi, she attended the Mississippi College
for Women, graduated from the University of Wisconsin (1929) and studied advertising at Columbia University for a year. Her
first short story appeared in 1936, and gradually she began to be published in small, then regional and general circulation
magazines. She published collections of her short stories and began publishing novels, as well.
Soon after her first novel was published, she stopped writing to care
full-time for her family for fifteen years: for two brothers with severe arthritis and her mother who had had a stroke. After
her mother died in 1966, she returned to writing.
She was a 6-time winner of the O. Henry Award for Short Stories, and
her many awards include the National Medal for Literature, the American Book Award, and, in 1969, a Pulitzer Prize.
She was also an accomplished and published photographer. But it is
for her fiction, usually set in the rural South, that she's known as the First Lady of Southern Literature.