Marcus Aureliu: Meditations (167 C.E.)
From Book Two
Begin the morning by saying to thyself, I shall meet
with the busy-body, the ungrateful, arrogant, deceitful, envious, unsocial. All these things happen to them by reason of their
ignorance of what is good and evil. But I who have seen the nature of the good that it is beautiful, and of the bad that it
is ugly, and the nature of him who does wrong, that it is akin to me, not only of the same blood or seed, but that it participates
in the same intelligence and the same portion of the divinity, I can neither be injured by any of them, for no one can fix
on me what is ugly, nor can I be angry with my kinsman, nor hate him, For we are made for co-operation, like feet, like hands,
like eyelids, like the rows of the upper and lower teeth. To act against one another then is contrary to nature; and it is
acting against one another to be vexed and to turn away.
Whatever this is that I am, it is a little flesh and breath,
and the ruling part. Throw
away thy books; no longer distract thyself: it is not allowed; but as if thou wast now dying,
despise the flesh; it is blood and bones and a network, a contexture of nerves, veins, and arteries. See the breath also,
what kind of a thing it is, air, and not always the same, but every moment sent out and again sucked in. The third then is
the ruling part: consider thus: Thou art an old man; no longer let this be a slave, no longer be pulled by the strings like
a puppet to unsocial movements, no longer either be dissatisfied with thy present lot, or shrink from the future.
that is from the gods is full of Providence. That which is from fortune is not
separated from nature or without an interweaving and involution
with the things which are ordered by Providence. From thence all things flow; and there is besides necessity, and that which is for the advantage
of the whole universe, of which thou art a part. But that is good for every part of nature which the nature of the whole brings,
and what serves to maintain this nature. Now the universe is preserved, as by the changes of the elements so by the changes
of things compounded of the elements. Let these principles be enough for thee, let them always be fixed opinions. But cast
away the thirst after books, that thou mayest not die murmuring, but cheerfully, truly, and from thy heart thankful to the
Remember how long thou hast been putting off these things, and how often thou hast received an opportunity from
the gods, and yet dost not use it. Thou must now at last perceive of what universe thou art a part, and of what administrator
of the universe thy existence is an efflux, and that a limit of time is fixed for thee, which if thou dost not use for clearing
away the clouds from thy mind, it will go and thou wilt go, and it will never return.
Every moment think steadily
as a Roman and a man to do what thou hast in hand with perfect and simple dignity, and feeling of affection, and freedom,
and justice; and to give thyself relief from all other thoughts. And thou wilt give thyself relief, if thou doest every act
of thy life as if it were the last, laying aside all carelessness and passionate aversion from the commands of reason, and
all hypocrisy, and self-love, and discontent with the portion which has been given to thee. Thou seest how few the things
are, the which if a man lays hold of, he is able to live a life which flows in quiet, and is like the existence of the gods;
for the gods on their part will require nothing more from him who observes these things.
Do wrong to thyself, do wrong
to thyself, my soul; but thou wilt no longer have the
opportunity of honouring thyself. Every man's life is sufficient.
But thine is nearly
finished, though thy soul reverences not itself but places thy felicity in the souls of others.
the things external which fall upon thee distract thee? Give thyself time to learn something new and good, and cease to be
whirled around. But then thou must also avoid being carried about the other way. For those too are triflers who have wearied
themselves in life by their activity, and yet have no object to which to direct every movement, and, in a word, all their
Through not observing what is in the mind of another a man has seldom been seen to be unhappy; but those
who do not observe the movements of their own minds must of necessity be unhappy.
This thou must always bear in mind,
what is the nature of the whole, and what is my nature, and how this is related to that, and what kind of a part it is of
what kind of a whole; and that there is no one who hinders thee from always doing and saying the things which are according
to the nature of which thou art a part.
Theophrastus, in his comparison of bad acts -- such a comparison as one would
make in accordance with the common notions of mankind- says, like a true philosopher, that the offences which are committed
through desire are more blameable than those which are committed through anger. For he who is excited by anger seems to turn
away from reason with a certain pain and unconscious contraction; but he who offends through desire, being overpowered by
pleasure, seems to be in a manner more intemperate and more womanish in his offences.
Rightly then, and in a way worthy
of philosophy, he said that the offence which is
committed with pleasure is more blameable than that which is committed
with pain; and on the whole the one is more like a person who has been first wronged and through pain is compelled to be angry;
but the other is moved by his own impulse to do wrong, being carried towards doing something by desire.
Since it is
possible that thou mayest depart from life this very moment, regulate every act and thought accordingly. But to go away from
among men, if there are gods, is not a thing to be afraid of, for the gods will not involve thee in evil; but if indeed they
do not exist, or if they have no concern about human affairs, what is it to me to live in a universe devoid of gods or devoid
of Providence? But
in truth they do exist, and they do care for human things, and they have put all the means in man's power to enable him not
to fall into real evils. And as to the rest, if there was anything evil, they would have provided for this also, that it should
be altogether in a man's power not to fall into it. Now that which does not make a man worse, how can it make a man's life
worse? But neither through ignorance, nor having the knowledge, but not the power to guard against or correct these things,
is it possible that the nature of the universe has overlooked them; nor
is it possible that it has made so great a mistake,
either through want of power or want of skill, that good and evil should happen indiscriminately to the good and the bad.
But death certainly, and life, honour and dishonour, pain and pleasure, all these things equally happen to good men and bad,
being things which make us neither better nor worse. Therefore they are neither good nor evil.
How quickly all things
disappear, in the universe the bodies themselves, but in time the remembrance of them; what is the nature of all sensible
things, and particularly those which attract with the bait of pleasure or terrify by pain, or are noised abroad by vapoury
fame; how worthless, and contemptible, and sordid, and perishable, and dead they are -- all this it is the part of the intellectual
faculty to observe. To observe, too, who these are whose opinions and voices give reputation; what death is, and the fact
that, if a man looks at it in itself, and by the abstractive power of reflection resolves into their parts all the things
which present themselves to the imagination in it, he will then consider it to be nothing else than an operation of nature;
and if any one is afraid of an operation of nature, he is a child. This, however, is not only an operation of nature, but
it is also a thing which conduces to the purposes of nature. To observe too how man comes
near to the deity, and by what
part of him, and when this part of man is so disposed.
Nothing is more wretched than a man who traverses everything
in a round, and pries into the things beneath the earth, as the poet says, and seeks by conjecture what is in the minds of
his neighbours, without perceiving that it is sufficient to attend to the daemon within him, and to reverence it sincerely.
And reverence of the daemon consists in keeping it pure from passion and thoughtlessness, and dissatisfaction with what comes
from gods and men. For the things from the gods merit veneration for their excellence; and the things from men should be dear
to us by reason of kinship; and sometimes even, in a manner, they move our pity by reason of men's ignorance of good and bad;
this defect being not less than that which deprives us of the power of distinguishing things that are white and black.
thou shouldst be going to live three thousand years, and as many times ten thousand years, still remember that no man loses
any other life than this which he now lives, nor lives any other than this which he now loses. The longest and shortest are
thus brought to the same. For the present is the same to all, though that which perishes is not the same; and so that which
is lost appears to be a mere moment. For a man cannot lose either the past or the future: for what a man has not, how can
any one take this from him? These two things then thou must bear in mind; the one, that all things from eternity are of like
forms and come round in a circle, and that it makes no difference whether a man shall
see the same things during a hundred
years or two hundred, or an infinite time; and the second, that the longest liver and he who will die soonest lose just the
same. For the present is the only thing of which a man can be deprived, if it is true that this is the only thing which he
has, and that a man cannot lose a thing if he has it not.
Remember that all is opinion. For what was said by the Cynic
Monimus is manifest: and manifest too is the use of what was said, if a man receives what may be got out of it as far as it
The soul of man does violence to itself, first of all, when it becomes an abscess and, as it were, a tumour
on the universe, so far as it can. For to be vexed at anything which happens is a separation of ourselves from nature, in
some part of which the natures of all other things are contained. In the next place, the soul does violence to itself when
it turns away from any man, or even moves towards him with the intention of injuring, such as are the souls of those who are
angry. In the third place, the soul does violence to itself when it is overpowered by pleasure or by pain. Fourthly, when
it plays a part, and does or says anything insincerely and untruly. Fifthly, when it allows any act of its own and any movement
to be without an aim, and does anything thoughtlessly and without considering what it is, it being right that even the smallest
things be done with reference to an end; and the end of rational animals is to follow the reason and the law of the most
city and polity.
Of human life the time is a point, and the substance is in a flux, and the perception dull, and the
composition of the whole body subject to putrefaction, and the soul a whirl, and fortune hard to divine, and fame a thing
devoid of judgement. And, to say all in a word, everything which belongs to the body is a stream, and what belongs to the
soul is a dream and vapour, and life is a warfare and a stranger's sojourn, and after-fame is oblivion. What then is that
which is able to conduct a man? One thing and only one, philosophy. But this consists in keeping the daemon within a man free
from violence and unharmed, superior to pains and pleasures, doing nothing without purpose, nor yet falsely and with
not feeling the need of another man's doing or not doing anything; and besides, accepting all that happens, and all that is
allotted, as coming from thence, wherever it is, from whence he himself came; and, finally, waiting for death with a cheerful
mind, as being nothing else than a dissolution of the elements of which every living being is compounded. But if there is
no harm to the elements themselves in each continually changing into another, why should a man have any apprehension about
the change and dissolution of all the elements? For it is according to nature, and nothing is evil which is according to
This in Carnuntum.
From Book Six
The substance of the universe is obedient and compliant; and the reason
which governs it has in itself no cause for doing evil, for it has no malice, nor does it do evil to anything, nor is anything
harmed by it. But all things are made and perfected according to this reason.
Let it make no difference to thee whether
thou art cold or warm, if thou art doing thy duty; and whether thou art drowsy or satisfied with sleep; and whether ill-spoken
of or praised; and whether dying or doing something else. For it is one of the acts of life, this act by which we die: it
is sufficient then in this act also to do well what we have in hand.
Look within. Let neither the peculiar quality
of anything nor its value escape thee.
All existing things soon change, and they will either be reduced to vapour,
if indeed all substance is one, or they will be dispersed.
The reason which governs knows what its own disposition
is, and what it does, and on what material it works.
The best way of avenging thyself is not to become like the wrongdoer.
Take pleasure in one thing and rest in it, in passing from one social act to another
social act, thinking of God.
The ruling principle is that which rouses and turns itself, and while it makes itself
such as it is and such as
it wills to be, it also makes everything which happens appear to itself to be such as it wills.
In conformity to the
nature of the universe every single thing is accomplished, for
certainly it is not in conformity to any other nature that
each thing is accomplished, either a nature which externally comprehends this, or a nature which is comprehended within this
nature, or a nature external and independent of this.
The universe is either a confusion, and a mutual involution
of things, and a dispersion; or it is unity and order and providence. If then it is the former, why do I desire to tarry in
a fortuitous combination of things and such a disorder? And why do I care about anything else than how I shall at last become
earth? And why am I disturbed, for the dispersion of my elements will happen whatever I do. But if the other supposition is
true, I venerate, and I am firm, and I trust in him who governs.
Frequently consider the connexion of all things in
the universe and their relation to one another. For in a manner all things are implicated with one another, and all in this
way are friendly to one another; for one thing comes in order after another, and this is by virtue of the active movement
and mutual conspiration and the unity of the substance.
Adapt thyself to the things with which thy lot has been cast:
and the men among whom thou hast received thy portion, love them, but do it truly, sincerely.
Every instrument, tool,
vessel, if it does that for which it has been made, is well, and yet he who made it is not there. But in the things which
are held together by nature there is within and there abides in them the power which made them; wherefore the more is it fit
to reverence this power, and to think, that, if thou dost live and act according to its will, everything in thee is in conformity
to intelligence. And thus also in the universe the things which belong to it are in conformity to intelligence.
of the things which are not within thy power thou shalt suppose to be good for thee or evil, it must of necessity be that,
if such a bad thing befall thee or the loss of such a good thing, thou wilt blame the gods, and hate men too, those who are
the cause of the misfortune or the loss, or those who are suspected of being likely to be the cause; and indeed we do much
injustice, because we make a difference between these things. But if we judge only those things which are in our power to
be good or bad, there remains no reason either for finding fault with God or standing in a hostile attitude to man.
are all working together to one end, some with knowledge and design, and others without knowing what they do; as men also
when they are asleep, of whom it is Heraclitus, I think, who says that they are labourers and co-operators in the things which take place in
the universe. But men co-operate after different fashions: and even those co-operate abundantly, who find fault with what
happens and those who try to oppose it and to hinder it; for the universe had need even of such men as these. It remains then
for thee to understand among what kind of workmen thou placest thyself; for he who rules all things will certainly make a
right use of thee, and he will receive thee among some part of the co-operators and of those whose labours conduce to one
end. But be not thou such a part as the mean and ridiculous verse in the play, which Chrysippus speaks of.
sun undertake to do the work of the rain, or Aesculapius the work of the
Fruit-bearer (the earth)? And how is it with respect
to each of the stars, are they not different and yet they work together to the same end?
If the gods have determined
about me and about the things which must happen to me, they have determined well, for it is not easy even to imagine a deity
without forethought; and as to doing me harm, why should they have any desire towards that? For what advantage would result
to them from this or to the whole, which is the special object of their providence? But if they have not determined about
me individually, they have certainly determined about the whole at least, and the things which happen by way of sequence in
this general arrangement I ought to accept with pleasure and to be content with them. But if they determine about nothing-
which it is wicked to believe, or if we do believe it, let us neither sacrifice nor pray nor swear by them nor do anything
else which we do as if the gods were present and lived with us -- but if however the gods determine about none of the
which concern us, I am able to determine about myself, and I can inquire about that which is useful; and that is useful to
every man which is conformable to his own constitution and nature. But my nature is rational and social; and my city and country,
so far as I am Antoninus, is Rome,
but so far as I am a man, it is the world. The things then which are useful to these cities are alone useful to me. Whatever
happens to every man, this is for the interest of the universal: this might be sufficient. But further thou wilt observe this
also as a general truth, if thou dost observe, that whatever is profitable to any man is profitable also to other men. But
let the word profitable be taken here in the common sense as said of things of the middle kind, neither good nor bad.
It is in our power to have no opinion about a thing, and not to be disturbed in our soul; for things themselves have
no natural power to form our judgments.
From Book Ten
Will you, then, my soul, never be good and
simple and one and naked, more manifest than the body which surrounds you? Will you never enjoy an affectionate and contented
disposition? Will you never be full and without want of any kind, longing for nothing more, nor desiring anything, either
animate or inanimate, for the enjoyment of pleasures? Nor yet desiring time, wherein you shall have longer enjoyment, or place,
or pleasant climate, or society of men with whom you may live in harmony? But will you be satisfied with your present
condition, and pleased with all that is about you?
From Book Twelve
All those things at which thou wishest to arrive by a circuitous
road, thou canst have now, if thou dost not refuse them to thyself. And this means, if thou wilt take no notice of all the
past, and trust the future to providence, and direct the present only conformably to piety and justice. Conformably to piety,
that thou mayest be content with the lot which is assigned to thee, for nature designed it for thee and thee for it. Conformably
to justice, that thou mayest always speak the truth freely and without disguise, and do the things which are agreeable to
law and according to the worth of each. And let neither another man's wickedness hinder thee, nor opinion nor voice, nor yet
the sensations of the poor flesh which has grown about thee; for the passive part will look to this. If then, whatever the
time may be when thou shalt be near to thy departure, neglecting everything else thou shalt respect only thy ruling faculty
and the divinity within thee, and if thou shalt be afraid not because thou must some time cease to live, but if thou shalt
fear never to have begun to live according to nature- then thou wilt be a man worthy of the universe which has produced thee,
and thou wilt cease to be a stranger in thy native land, and to wonder at things which happen daily as if they were something
unexpected, and to be dependent on this or that.
God sees the minds (ruling principles) of all men bared of the material
vesture and rind and impurities. For with his intellectual part alone he touches the intelligence only which has flowed and
been derived from himself into these bodies. And if thou also usest thyself to do this, thou wilt rid thyself of thy much
trouble. For he who regards not the poor flesh which envelops him, surely will not trouble himself by looking after raiment
and dwelling and fame and such like externals and show.
The things are three of which thou art composed, a little
body, a little breath (life),
intelligence. Of these the first two are thine, so far as it is thy duty to take care of
but the third alone is properly thine. Therefore if thou shalt separate from
thyself, that is, from thy understanding,
whatever others do or say, and whatever thou hast done or said thyself, and whatever future things trouble thee because they
may happen, and whatever in the body which envelops thee or in the breath (life), which is by nature associated with the body,
is attached to thee independent of thy will, and whatever the external circumfluent vortex whirls round, so that the intellectual
power exempt from the things of fate can live pure and free by itself, doing what is just and accepting what happens and saying
the truth: if thou wilt separate, I say, from this ruling faculty the things which are attached to it by the impressions of
sense, and the things of time to come and of time that is past, and wilt make thyself like Empedocles' sphere,
round, and in its joyous rest reposing; and if thou shalt strive to live only what is really thy life, that is, the present
-- then thou wilt be able to pass that portion of life which remains for thee up to the time of thy death, free from perturbations,
nobly, and obedient to thy own daemon (to the god that is within thee).
When thou art troubled about anything, thou
hast forgotten this, that all things happen according to the universal nature; and forgotten this, that a man's wrongful act
is nothing to thee; and further thou hast forgotten this, that everything which happens, always happened so and will happen
so, and now happens so everywhere; forgotten this too, how close is the kinship between a man and the whole human race, for
it is a community, not of a little blood or seed, but of intelligence. And thou hast forgotten this, too, that every man's
intelligence is a god, and is an efflux of the deity; and forgotten this, that nothing is a man's own, but that his child
and his body and his very soul came from the deity; forgotten this, that everything is opinion; and lastly thou hast forgotten
that every man lives the present time only, and loses only this.
Constantly bring to thy recollection those who have
complained greatly about anything, those who have been most conspicuous by the greatest fame or misfortunes or enmities or
fortunes of any kind: then think where are they all now? Smoke and ash and a tale, or not even a tale. And let there be present
to thy mind also everything of this sort, how Fabius Catullinus lived in the country, and Lucius Lupus in his gardens, and
Stertinius at Baiae, and Tiberius at Capreae and Velius Rufus (or Rufus at Velia); and in fine think of the eager pursuit
of anything conjoined with pride; and how worthless everything is after which men violently strain; and how much more philosophical
it is for a man in the opportunities presented to him to show himself just, temperate, obedient to the gods, and to do this
will all simpicity: for the pride which is proud of its want of pride is the most intolerable of all.